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However, because of its psychostimulatory properties, Modalert is often used to improve focus, increase concentration, improve learning ability, and creative problem solving. Since it is not considered as an illegal substance and indeed greatly improves cognitive abilities, its use is very common in every part of the world. It is used by students, programmers in the Silicon Valley, but also by ordinary people who simply have too many tasks and obligations and not enough time especially since you can buy modafinil online at very cheap prices from meds4sure.com.  

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of action of Modalert has not been fully clarified. For now, it is only assumed that numerous mechanisms are involved in the action of the drug (of which the most important is the effect on the glutaminergic and dopaminergic signaling systems in the CNS). Due to the lack of data on its mechanism of action, it is not entirely possible to assess whether Modafinil can cause physical or psychological dependence. Some doctors believe that the Modalert addiction is possible, especially if it is applied continuously for more than 3 months. However, there are no clinical studies to confirm this claims.

Pharmacokinetics

After the oral administration, Modalert appears very quickly in the blood and starts to work after only 30-60 minutes. Maximum blood concentrations are achieved on average for 2-4 hours, depending on the body weight of the person taking the pill. About 60% of Modalert is bound to albumin but it does not affect other drugs that are bound to plasma proteins in high percentage (such as Warfarin and Diazepam).

Modalert is primarily metabolized through the liver, where it is converted into Modafinil acid and is excreted via the urine. In addition to Modafinil acid, five other metabolites are isolated, but in a significantly lower percentage.

In vitro studies have shown that Modalert is metabolized mostly by enzyme CYP3A4 (an enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of over 50% of all drugs). The medicine exhibits an inductive effect on CYP3A4 and CYP1A2, which means that it will accelerate the metabolism of all drugs that are metabolized by these enzymes. Accelerating the metabolism of a medicine accelerates its elimination from the body and reduces the effectiveness of the drug. For this reason, Modalert should not be administered concomitantly with all medicines that are metabolized by CYP3A4 or CYP1A2 because it will reduce their effects. For example, if Modafinil is used concurrently with Yasmin (oral contraceptive pills), it reduces the effect of Yasmin and completely eliminates the effect of contraception, which can lead to unwanted pregnancy.

The pharmacokinetics of Modalert has been studied in patients with severe liver damage. It has been demonstrated that the level of Modafinil is significantly increased in these patients. Therefore, the dose of Modalert in patients with severe hepatic impairment must be reduced.

Warnings

Modalert is not approved for use in patients under the age of 17 years because there are no data on its safety in this population.

The post-marketing research has shown that Modalert increases the risk of very toxic forms of skin rashes, such as Steven-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. These conditions may have fatal outcome, and bear in mind that you must contact your doctor if you notice any changes on your skin. In 95% of cases, skin rash occurred at the beginning of therapy (between 7-35th day) and special precaution is required at the beginning of therapy. Stop using Modalert immediately if you notice skin rash.

One case of severe allergic reaction has been reported in clinical studies that included more than 1600 patients who have used Modalert. Allergic reaction was accompanied by rash, difficulty swallowing, and difficulty breathing (the so-called angioedema).

Rare cases of multi-organ hypersensitivity have also been reported with the onset of the following symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Hepatitis
  • Chronic exhaustion
  • Cardiac inflammation
  • Increased levels of liver enzymes in the blood
  • Increased number of eosinophils in the blood
  • Decreased number of leukocytes in the blood
  • Decreased number of platelets in the blood

If you notice any of these symptoms, you need to contact your doctor immediately.

The post-marketing research has shown that Modafinil can cause mania, hallucinations, aggressive behavior, delusions, and suicidal thoughts. Most of the patients with these side effects have already had psychiatric disorders. However, Modalert can also cause psychiatric adverse effects in completely healthy people. If you notice these symptoms, stop using this drug immediately and contact your physician.

Clinical studies have shown that Modalert can cause changes in T-wave on the electrocardiogram, which is manifested by the occurrence of chest pain and palpitations. If you notice these symptoms, contact your doctor immediately as these symptoms may indicate a heart attack.

Retrospective studies have shown that people using Modalert have higher chances of hypertension – 2.4% of patients who used Modafinil had to start using antihypertensive drugs compared to only 0.7% in the placebo group.

However, as retrospective studies are not the best indicator and are not reliable source, more detailed and more serious studies are needed in order to confirm this side effect.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Studies in rats have not shown that Modalert has mutagenic properties. There was no negative effect on fertility in men and women.

The FDA places this drug in group C because research on rats has shown that Modalert slows down the growth and development of the fetus, thereby increasing the risk of fetal death. However, data on the use of the drug in human pregnancy are not available.

For this reason, Modalert should not be used in pregnant women.

There is no evidence of Modalert being excreted in breast milk. Therefore, its use during lactation is not recommended.

Side effects

Modalert can cause the following side effects:

  • Manic disorders
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Anxiety
  • Hallucinations
  • Insomnia
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Nervousness
  • Pain in the chest
  • Palpitations
  • Myocarditis
  • Inflammation of the liver
  • Changes in the number of blood cells
  • Neck rigidity
  • Fever
  • Hypertension
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Widening of blood vessels
  • Flatulence
  • Ulcerative changes in the mouth
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Pain in the eye
  • Visual disturbance
  • Steven-Jonson syndrome
  • Toxic epidermal necrolysis

Tell your doctor if you notice any side effects.

 

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Modafinil: Say “Goodbye” to Narcolepsy Forever was last modified: by

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